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PRINCE2™ A Practical Handbook This page intentionally left blank PRINCE2™ A Practical Handbook Third editionColin. PRINCE2 This book has been revised in line with the changes to the PRINCE2 manual, published in February/March Prince 2: A Practical Handbook (3rd edition) PRINCE2 is a flexible, widely-used project management method aimed at all types of projects. The author suggests.

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Prince2 A Practical Handbook Pdf

Pris: kr. Inbunden, Skickas inom vardagar. Köp PRINCE2: A Practical Handbook av Colin Bentley på Read PRINCE2 PDF - A Practical Handbook by Colin Bentley Routledge | Struggling to apply the principles of PRINCE2? to make the method. explanation of practical application. PRINCE2 is owned and developed by the Office of Government Commerce (OGC). .. PRINCE2: a practical handbook.

A Practitioner's Approach 6th Edition For over 20 years, Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach has been the best selling guide to software engineering for students and industry professionals alike. The sixth edition continues to lead the way in software engineering. A new Part 4 on Web Engineering presents a complete engineering approach for the analysis, design, and testing of Web Applications, increasingly important for today's students. Additionally, the UML coverage has been enhanced and signficantly increased in this new edition. The pedagogy has also been improved in the new edition to include sidebars. They provide information on relevant softare tools, specific work flow Project Management Practitioner's Handbook Emphasizing the "people" side of project management, this welcome guide shows you how to accomplish project goals while continuously dealing with ambiguity, change, and time pressures all along the way.

The Project Manager also needs to know how much the solution is worth in order to make appropriate judgments if changes occur later. Preparing a document to get approval to start the project is important work. It needs planning, and since initiation will consume some resources, the Project Board should approve the plan for it. Links to other parts of the book Examine the Project Brief and decide how much work is needed in order to produce the Project Initiation Document.

Plans theme Evaluate the time needed to create the next Stage Plan after initiation. Plans theme Evaluate the time needed to create or refine the Business Case. Business Case theme Review risks in the Daily Log to see if any might affect the initiation stage. Evaluate the time needed to perform risk analysis. Progress theme Create a plan for the initiation stage.

Plans theme Update the Daily Log with any changed or new risks. Risk Get Project Board approval for the plan. The Project Initiation Document is an extension of the Project Brief to include details of the project management team and risk analysis, plus a refinement of the Business Case and the Project Plan.

The initiation Stage Plan should show the effort and resources to generate the extra information and the plan for the next stage. If informal communication with members of the Project Board is to be frequent during initiation, this can reduce the need for formal reporting. Chapter 4 4. And so, I hope you see there is a need for a good Project Management method. Change: Projects are a way to introduce change.

Example: A new sales website will change how clients will download items. Temporary: There should always be a definite start and end to a project, and it should stop once the required products are created.

Ongoing maintenance of a product occurs after the project and is not considered part of the project. Cross- A project involves people from different business departments and Functional: seniority that work together for the duration of the project. Unique: Every project is unique, as there is always something different in each project. These are the five characteristics of the project.

Update the Team Plan to reflect progress. Raise issues to advise the Project Manager of any problems. As long as the work is forecast to stay within the tolerance limits defined in the Team Manager, the Team Manager manages the activity, including taking any necessary corrective action. If it is forecast to exceed a tolerance, the Team Manager must send an issue to the Project Manager detailing the forecast deviation. There has to be a process to deliver the requested product s and document the agreement that the work has been done satisfactorily.

If there is no Team Manager, then the responsibility lies with either an individual team member or the Project Manager, depending on to whom the Work Package was allocated.

Links to other parts of the book Confirm that the Quality Register has been updated with details of a successful check on the quality of the product s. Follow the procedure in delivering completed products to the destination defined in the Work Package.

Advise the Project Manager that the Work Package is complete. The original Work Package should say how it is to be done. The formality usually depends on the criticality of the product and the state of the relationships between the customer and the supplier. If you expect the work to form part of a later appraisal of your work, you should ensure that the Project Manager documents how well you did. You should be shown or given a copy of the appraisal.

The ability to authorize a project to move forward a stage at a time is a major control for the Project Board. There is also a need for a process to create a plan to react to a forecast deviation beyond tolerances. This process aims to provide the information needed by the Project Board about the current status of the Project Plan, Business Case and risks to enable them to judge the continuing worth of the project and commitment to a new plan.

In order to adequately control a stage, the Project Manager needs a plan in which the detailed activities go down to the level of a handful of days. Any Project Assurance functions should review the plan to ensure products have suitable and timely quality checks with appropriate resources assigned.

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Review the Risk and Issue Registers for entries that may affect the next stage. Appendix C Document any changes to the personnel of the project management team. Organization theme Discuss the draft plan with those who have Project Assurance responsibilities for the Senior User and Senior Supplier in order to include quality checking activities.

Identify as a minimum the chair of each formal quality review. Identify with those with Project Assurance responsibility the required reviewers for each formal quality check.

Appendix D Enter details of quality checks and involved personnel in the Quality Register. Create or update Configuration Item Records for the products of the next stage. If the company has a centre of expertise, this may include expertise in use of the standard planning tools, and this may be available through the role of Project Support.

It does not need to be a big effort, and a planning tool may not be needed, but you should think through what products are needed and in what sequence. This often shows up products or steps that you had overlooked. As one stage is completed and the next one planned, the Project Plan must be updated so that the Project Board has the most up-to-date information on likely project costs and a schedule on which to partially base its decision on whether the project is still a viable business proposition.

Links to other parts of the book Ensure that the current Stage Plan has been updated with final costs and dates. Create a new version of the Project Plan ready to be updated. Update the Project Plan with the actual costs and dates of the current stage. Update the Project Plan with the estimated costs, resource requirements and dates of the next stage or Exception Plan.

Links to other parts of the book Update any later stages of the Project Plan on the basis of any relevant information made available since the last update. Check to see if events mean that the project approach has to be modified.

Check to see if events require any changes to the Quality Management Strategy. The Project Plan should be updated with the information described above. The whole project should be business-driven, so the Project Board should review a revised Business Case as a major part of the check on the continued viability of the project. Links to other parts of the book Create a new version of the Business Case ready to be updated.

Review the expected costs in the investment appraisal against the new forecast in the updated Project Plan. Review the financial benefits in the investment appraisal against any new forecasts. Review the reasons in the Business Case and check that there has been no change or that no new reasons have come to light. Modify the new version of the Business Case in the light of any changes to forecast benefits.

Update the Benefits Review Plan with the results of any benefit reviews carried out in the current stage. Ensure that the Risk Register is up-to-date with the latest information on the identified risks. Ensure that any new risks identified in creating the next Stage Plan have been entered on the Risk Register.

Assess all open risks to the project, as defined in the Risk Register. Create contingency plans for any serious risks which cannot be avoided or reduced to manageable proportions. Update the Issue and Risk Registers if required. An assessment of the risks should be part of the End Stage Report. In practice, the Project Manager should informally discuss any serious risks with the Project Board so that the risk situation and any extra costs incurred in reacting to those risks do not come as a surprise at the end stage assessment.

Many of the above list of actions will only take minutes to do. Continuous risk assessment and management are important to all levels of project. Normally the Project Board manages by exception and therefore only needs to meet if things are forecast to deviate beyond tolerance levels. Links to other parts of the book Report on the actual costs and time of the current stage and measure these against the plan which was approved by the Project Board. Provide details of the next Stage Plan if applicable.

Identify any necessary revisions to the Project Plan caused by the next Stage Plan. Identify any changes to the Business Case caused by the next Stage Plan. Report on any benefit reviews carried out in the stage. Report on the risk situation. Recommend the next action e.

The Project Board should be aware of what will be in the End Stage Report before it formally receives it. It is normally sensible to undertake an End Stage Report even if the current stage is to be replaced by an Exception Plan. The project may be small enough that the Project Plan contains sufficient detail to manage each stage, thus separate Stage Plans are not needed. The report may be verbal, if this has the agreement of the Project Board. It is unlikely, although not impossible, that benefit reviews will be carried out within the stage.

The Project Board approves a Stage Plan on the understanding that it stays within its defined tolerance margins. When an Exception Report indicates that the current tolerances are likely to be exceeded, the Stage Plan no longer has that approval. The Project Board may ask for a new plan to reflect the changed situation, which can be controlled within newly specified tolerance margins. Examine the Exception Report for any newly identified products or changes to existing ones. Appendix C Review the Quality Management Strategy to understand the quality requirements, standards and activities that need to be added to the Exception Plan.

Plans theme Update the Quality Register with details of the planned checks and personnel. An Exception Plan covers the time from the present moment to the end of the current stage. Although not a planned stage boundary, the production of an Exception Plan for a stage is treated in the same way as a normal stage end.

In such cases the Stage Plan will need to be replaced as well. Reasons for the deviation forecast can be many, such as: Other possible results are premature closure of the project, a concession from the Project Board to accept whatever the current lack or fault may be or a decision to delay the requested change until after the current project finishes. It is, however, important to advise the Project Board of any potential deviation beyond tolerances, to have a record that the Stage Plan was changed to accommodate the change and that the Project Board approved the new targets.

The same concept can be applied by the Project Manager to Team Plans if they are forecast to deviate beyond tolerances. Chapter 9 Closing a Project CP 9. Every project should come to a controlled completion. In order to have its success measured, a project must be brought to a close when the Project Manager believes that it has met the objectives set out in the Project Initiation Document.

There should be an agreed plan to judge achievement of the claimed benefits when it is appropriate to do so. The customer, Project Manager and supplier must agree that a project has met its objectives before it can close. There must be a check that there are no outstanding problems or requests. Prepare planned closure Updated Project Plan Project closure recommendation Chapter 9 Closing a Project CP The project documentation, particularly agreements and approvals, should be preserved for any later audits.

Links to other parts of the book Update the Project Plan with actuals from the final stage. Check that any open risks that might affect the products in their operational environment have been transferred as follow-on action recommendations. Ensure that, where applicable, those who will be responsible for maintenance and support of the products are ready to accept the product. Prepare a request to the Project Board to release project staff and set a date for receipt of final invoices from suppliers.

If any acceptance criteria have not been fully met, the customer and the supplier may agree to record this as an issue off-specification to be dealt with in a later project. The final product may be handed over to a new third party to operate and maintain, and there may be contractual arrangements involved in the acceptance of the product.

The project and its products should not simply be abandoned. Every effort should be made to salvage anything useful from the terminated project. Input should be sought from any Project Assurance roles used. Links to other parts of the book Update the Exception Report if there is one , the Issue Report and Issue Register to note the instruction to prematurely close the project. Obtain a Product Status Account to identify A. This work may require an Exception Plan and approval from the Project Board.

Ensure that, where applicable, those who will be responsible for maintenance and support of the products are ready to accept those products that were completed or are in a state where use can be made of them. Ensure that the reason for premature close is recorded in the Lessons Log. Where the project is part of a programme, any recommendations for followon actions should be passed via the Project Board to the programme.

Links to other parts of the book Ensure there are follow-on action recommendations for any incomplete issues or risks that might affect operational use of the products. Transfer the products to the customer. Update the Configuration Item Records. Check if the configuration library is to be moved to a new site. It may be sensible to set a number of phases for the measurement of benefits to reflect, e. For example, with an IT product, there may be a period of tuning the computer environment to best suit the new system; spreading training across a multi-location company may take a long time with benefits measured as each new area comes on board.

The speed of a channel tunnel journey may have one measurement at the outset, but need measuring again when Railtrack opens the fast link to St. Where the project has been an internal one, the Configuration Item Records may not physically move. One way in which to improve the quality of project management is to learn from the lessons of past projects. As part of closing the project, the Project Board needs to assess the performance of the project and the Project Manager.

Links to other parts of the book Review the original Project Initiation Document and the changes to it to understand what the project was supposed to achieve. Assemble the items in the Lessons Log into the Lessons Report. If there are suggestions that the Quality Management Strategy used by the project needed modification, this should be made clear and such comments directed to the appropriate quality assurance or centre of expertise function.

Links to other parts of the book Review the Communication Management A.

Archive the project documentation in such a way that the documents can be easily retrieved. At what time does the janitor come round?

For how long do you keep your filing? The Project Manager may have contained all the registers within the Daily Log. This page intentionally left blank Chapter 10 Business Case No project should start without a valid Business Case; a project should be terminated if its Business Case becomes invalid. Examples of this might include retraining staff, the provision of new premises and equipment and the costs of changeover to the new product.

The Executive is the owner of the Business Case. Having said this, the Senior User is responsible for specifying the benefits, which is reasonable, because the Senior User will be responsible for realizing the benefits when the finished product is delivered.

Certainly the Project Brief must contain at least the reasons why the project should be done as part of its outline Business Case. This would be checked by the Project Board as part of its decision on whether to enter the initiation stage. During initiation the Business Case is fleshed out and completed. Costs are given to it from the Project Plan; a summary of risks is added, together with an overview of the options considered for meeting the business problem and reasons for the selection of the chosen option.

An investment appraisal is created to show the benefits and savings that the new product is expected to achieve. The Business Case options are the different ways that were considered to solve the business problem. For example, if the business problem is that sales are dropping, options might be: If the last one is the chosen option, the project approach would look at how to provide the calendar.

It provides a basis for quantifying the other options. What would happen to the business problem if nothing was done? What would be the potential losses? What are the costs of continuing as we are today? This can be compared against the costs and potential savings and benefits of each other option. Benefits and savings should be defined in measurable form wherever possible. Careful measurements of the current situation should be taken in order to later discover whether use of the new product has achieved the benefits and savings.

The expected benefits will influence the products to be provided by the project. Mapping benefits to outcomes to required products helps decisionmaking in the planning and control of the project. No products should be there that do not directly or indirectly enable the expected benefits to be achieved. Whichever phrase you use, it describes the bad results expected either during the project or when using the project outcome.

For example, a project that turns a motorway into a toll road would have a negative outcome of a number of drivers leaving the motorway and driving through already-congested towns rather than paying the toll. It normally evaluates these over a period of years or the life of the product. The customer will define the range to be used and may have accounting rules on how the investment appraisal is to be calculated Cartoon The Project Board must be sure that the Business Case is valid before authorizing the project.

A review of the Business Case is part of every Project Board decision, such as each end stage assessment, consideration of an Exception Report and confirmation of project closure. This means that the Business Case must be maintained throughout the project. For example, it is updated in Managing a Stage Boundary, taking the latest information from the revised Project Plan.

It means that you can discount any idea of getting any cash from me! What does Discounted Cash Flow mean? This plan defines how, when and with what resources measurement of benefit achievement should be done.

It may not be possible to realize most or all benefits until the products have been in operational use for some time, maybe months. This is one reason why benefits have to be stated in measurable terms and why measurements should be taken at the beginning of the project, so that progress in achieving them can be seen.

If part of a programme, the Benefits Review Plan may be held and managed by the programme. Some benefits may be achieved within the life of the project. The Executive is responsible for ensuring that any benefits reviews done within the project are planned and executed. This is because the project management team will have been disbanded and the benefit review s will have to be funded and resourced.

Post-project reviews should also consider whether there are any side effects or bottlenecks caused and a review of user opinions of the outcome. Many of the expected benefits will come from the users, and this is why it is the responsibility of the Senior User role to provide these. This will often require the Project Manager help to identify sensible measurements. In a project that uses external suppliers to provide some of the products, each external supplier will have its own Business Case, quite different from that of the customer.

Chapter 10 Business Case If the project is part of a programme, the programme will often provide the Business Case and the project simply contributes to it. In large or very important projects there may be a need to have the participation of a specialized business analyst to prepare the investment appraisal. This may come from a central Project Support office or a centre of expertise.

Types of project are: Stage Plans and any required Exception Plans may cause the Project Plan to be updated, but both of these would lead to updating the Project Plan in the SB process, and so any changes at that level would be captured. The Business Case is a major Project Board control throughout the project. A valid outline Business Case must be present before the Project Board authorizes the initiation stage. A valid and complete Business Case is required before the Project Board will authorize the project at the end of initiation.

The Project Manager must present the Benefits Review Plan to show the Project Board when and how achievement of the benefits and savings can be measured before the Project Board will confirm project closure in the DP activity, Authorize Project Closure.

It is just like any other gamble. Do you go for the risky big winner or do you stick to a conservative no-risk policy and settle for smaller, but more secure benefits? Part of the decisions leading up to the production of the Business Case is the balance between cost and quality. It is likely that there will be several versions during the project and it is important to know which the latest version is.

Chapter 10 Business Case First, the impact on the Business Case is part of the analysis of an issue or risk. Secondly, an issue may be raised to request a change in the Business Case.

An example here might be where someone notices an error in the Business Case, an incorrect calculation or an over-optimistic benefit claim, but also an external event may cause a change to the Business Case. A competitor bringing a better product to the market place may reduce or destroy the expected benefits from the project. Government legislation may make the final product unusable or require major modification to it.

Do ensure that the current situation has been accurately recorded in terms that will allow the expected benefits and savings of the new product to be checked. Do review the Business Case as part of a decision on whether to start the next stage. Do not believe that your project does not need a Business Case. Do not believe that one or two reasons constitute an adequate Business Case. Do not keep making changes without checking on their impact on the Business Case, or you may find that the final product will never recoup its cost.

Do not be afraid to close a project if the Business Case ceases to be valid. Be wary of dashing into a large project with a Business Case through which some auditor can later drive a coach and horses. This page intentionally left blank Chapter 11 Organization The customer is the person or group who wants the end product, specifies what it should be and, usually, pays for the development of that product. The supplier is whoever provides the resources to build or procure the end product.

This is true even if the customer and supplier work for the same company. If this is the case they may still report to different lines of management, have different budgets and therefore have a different view of the finances of the project.

Establishing an effective organizational structure for the project is crucial to its success. Every project needs direction, management, control and communication. Before you start any project you should establish what the project organization is to be.

You need to ask the questions even if it is a very small project. Answers to these questions will separate the real decision-makers from those who have opinions, identify responsibility and accountability and establish a structure for communication.

Examples of the questions to ask are: Who has the authority to say what is needed? Who is providing the development resources? Who will manage the project on a day-to-day basis?

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How many different sets of specialist skills are needed? Who will establish and maintain the required standards? Who will safeguard the developed products? Who will know where all the documents are? A project needs a different organization structure to line management. A project is often cross-functional and may need to combine people working full time on the project with others who have to divide their time between the project and other duties.

The Project Manager may have direct management control over some of the project staff, but may also have to direct staff that report to another management structure Cartoon The management structure of the customer will very often be different to that of the supplier. They will have different priorities, different interests to protect, but in some way they must be united in the common aims of the project.

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It would be good if we could create a generic project management structure that could be tailored to any project. But if we were to have one structure for all sizes of project, it would be important that we made it flexible, a structure that would be adequate for large as well as small projects. The only way in which we can do this is to talk about roles that need to be filled, rather than jobs that need to be allocated on a one-to-one basis to individuals.

Examples are given later in the chapter. The structure allows for the possible inclusion of the four layers of management see Whether they are all needed depends on the specific project.

If they are too busy or do not have the current expertise, they can appoint someone to a Project Assurance role to monitor an aspect of the project on their behalf. Another example of the assurance role would be a role for internal audit. This might be purely administration, such jobs as filing or note-taking, but it also includes specialist jobs such as configuration management or expertise in the planning and control software tool that is to be used on the project.

Below is a description for each role in the project management structure. Two copies of an agreed job description should be signed by the individual, one for retention by the individual, the other to be filed in the project file.

It follows that members of the Project Board have to be managers with adequate authority for the resources that have to be committed. It is the authority that signs off the completion of each stage as well as authorizes the start of the next stage. It ensures that required resources are committed and arbitrates on any conflicts within the project or negotiates a solution to any problems between the project and external bodies.

In addition, it approves the appointment and responsibilities of the Project Manager and any delegation of its assurance responsibilities.

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The Project Board has the following responsibilities. It is a general list and will need tailoring for a specific project. At the beginning of the project: As the project progresses: At the end of the project: The Project Board is ultimately responsible for the assurance of the project, that it remains on course to deliver the desired outcome of the required quality to meet the Business Case defined in the project contract.

According to the size, complexity and risk of the project, the Project Board may decide to delegate some of this Project Assurance responsibility. Later in this chapter assurance is defined in more detail. One Project Board responsibility that should receive careful consideration is that of approving and funding changes.

The Change theme should be read before finalizing this responsibility of approving and funding changes. Responsibilities of specific members of the Project Board are described in the respective sections below. The Executive has to ensure that the project is value for money, ensuring a cost-conscious approach to the project, balancing the demands of business, user and supplier. The Executive is responsible for the appointment of the other members of the Project Board and the Project Manager.

The Executive is responsible for overall business assurance of the project, i. Business assurance covers: If the project warrants it, the Executive may delegate some responsibility for the above business assurance functions. The role represents the interests of all those who will use the final product s of the project, those for whom the product will achieve an objective, or those who will use the product to deliver benefits.

The Senior User role commits user resources and monitors products against requirements. This role may require more than one person to cover all user interests. For the sake of effectiveness, the role should not be split between too many people Cartoon I transferred in as head of department last month as part of my fast track to the top.

We do our own Project Assurance. Detail always bores me. The Senior Supplier role must have the authority to commit or acquire any supplier resources required. If necessary, more than one person may be required to represent the suppliers.

The Senior Supplier is responsible for the specialist assurance of the project. The specialist assurance role responsibilities are to: If warranted, some of this assurance responsibility may be delegated.

The Project Manager is also responsible for the project producing a result that is capable of achieving the benefits defined in the Business Case. Where the project does not warrant the use of a Team Manager, the Project Manager takes the role. The Project Manager may find that it is beneficial to delegate the authority and responsibility for planning the creation of certain products and managing a team of technicians to produce those products.

There are many reasons why it may be decided to employ this role. Some of these are the size of the project, the particular specialist skills or knowledge needed for certain products, geographical location of some team members and the preferences of the Project Board.

The Team Manager reports to and takes direction from the Project Manager. The use of this role should be discussed by the Project Manager with the Project Board and, if the role is required, planned at the outset of the project. This is discussed later in the pre-project preparation and kick-off processes.

The supplier may have a quality assurance function charged with the responsibility to check that all projects are adhering to their quality system. This is the Project Assurance function Cartoon To cater for a small project, we start by identifying these Project Assurance functions as part of the role of each Project Board member.

According to the needs and desires of the Project Board, any of these assurance responsibilities can be delegated, as long as the recipients are independent of the Project Manager and the rest of the project management team. Any appointed assurance jobs assure the project on behalf of one or more members of the Project Board.

It is not mandatory that all assurance roles be delegated. Each of the assurance roles which is delegated may be assigned to one individual or shared.

The Project Board decides when an assurance role needs to be delegated. It may be for the entire project or only part of it.

Project Assurance. Any use of assurance roles needs to be planned at initiation stage, otherwise resource usage and costs for assurance could easily get out of control.

There is no stipulation on how many assurance roles there must be. Each Project Board role has assurance responsibilities. Again, each project should determine what support, if any, each Project Board role needs to achieve this assurance. Note that they would only be delegated. The Project Board member retains accountability.

Any delegation should be documented. The quality assurance could include verification by an external party that the Project Board is performing its functions correctly. Assurance covers all interests of a project, including business, user and supplier. Project Assurance has to be independent of the Project Manager; therefore, the Project Board cannot delegate any of its assurance responsibilities to the Project Manager.

It is not enough to believe that standards will be obeyed. It is not enough to ensure that a project is well set up and justified at the outset.

All the aspects listed above need to be checked throughout the project as part of ensuring that it remains consistent with and continues to meet a business need and that no change to the external environment affects the validity of the project. It is driven by the needs of the individual project and Project Manager. Project Support could be in the form of advice on project management tools, administrative services such as filing and the collection of actual data to one or more related projects.

Where set up as an official body, Project Support can act as a repository for lessons and a central source of expertise in specialist support tools. One support function that must be considered is that of configuration management.

Depending on the project size and environment, there may be a need to formalize this, and it quickly becomes a task with which the Project Manager cannot cope without support.

See the Change theme for details of the work Cartoon According to the size and importance of the project, you may not need all four to be represented, but that should be a decision you take when you understand the philosophy and can compare it to the needs of a specific project Figure What I am saying is that a project may be of concern to the very top level of management in the corporation.

This would be the top layer in the diagram. This layer provides a vision of what the company should look like and what it should be doing in the future. It has to coordinate all the projects going on to change the company to the vision that they have for it. I will address these constraints in the Progress theme. Examples of questions this Board would answer are: Is this a good way of spending our money? Is the proposed solution in line with company strategy? Should we continue or close the project?

Do we want to pay for this major change request? Are we prepared to accept the product being offered by the Project Manager? Does it meet our requirements? The work of this role is reasonably easy to understand. But very often the Project Manager is not the person providing the funds.

The bigger the project, the more likely it is that the Project Manager will have to go to a higher level of management for decisions and commitments on money, the specification of what is needed, the resources required to do the job and acceptance of products developed by the project. Geography may be a factor in deciding whether you need Team Managers. If the developers are in groups some distance away from each other, it is very difficult to manage them all personally. The other case is where the solution is to be provided by a third party.

The external supplier will want to manage its own resources. This might be purely administrative, such jobs as filing or note-taking, but it also includes specialist jobs such as configuration management or expertise in the planning and control software tool that is to be used on the project.

In particular, the Executive and Project Manager should stay for the whole duration. This is not always possible. For example, the Armed Forces usually rotate their personnel every 3 years. If the project happens to be one that will take more years than that, there are often serious problems in losing the Executive who has been the driving force behind the project, bringing on new Senior Users who have different ideas or want changes to put their personal mark on the project, exchanging the Project Manager for someone who has not the same identification with the project.

There may be, however, good reasons for a change. A project moving out of a design phase into development may need different or additional Senior Suppliers; the skill set needed for Project Assurance may change as the project moves through its technical work; someone may leave the company. The PRINCE2 project management team structure and well-defined job descriptions should help to smooth out any personnel changes. A stage boundary provides a useful opportunity for personnel changes.

The end stage procedure checks for any changes, and the End Stage Report, current and next Stage Plans provide a useful batch of progress information for any newcomers. The outcome of a project should match company strategy.

A project should provide value for money. The business view should have a decision-making role in a project to ensure that these three prerequisites are present at the start of a project and are maintained throughout the project. The Executive looks after the business interests. The user role on the Project Board represents those who will: These interests are part of the Senior User role on the Project Board.

Remember that you may need more than one person to represent different groups of users. Alternatively, a small project may be able to combine this role with that of the Executive. There may be more than one supplier. You must be careful to appoint managers who can commit the required resources. There may be one major supplier and many smaller suppliers.