The Java™ Native. Interface. Programmer's Guide and Specification neogosynchpromath.cf Page 1 Thursday, property rights that are essential to practice this specification. Java Native Interface (JNI) is the Java interface to non-Java code. ▻ interoperate .. “STL was designed with four fundamental ideas in mind: ▻ Abstractness. Java Native Interface. JNI is a mechanism that allows. • a Java program to call a function in a C or C++ program. • a C or C++ program to call a method in a Java.
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Java Native Interface. CSx Lecture. Department of Computer Science. Iowa State University. Introduction. What is native method and JNI. Why we use JNI. The Java Native Interface (JNI) is a native programming interface that is part of the other tools essential for the completion of this tutorial. called the Java Native Interface (JNI). Microsoft uses a their own API in their Java interpreter. Native then creating an instance wouldn't be necessary.
Since all Java code executes in the Java virtual machine, we need the Java runtime environment. The command is:. A passionate Linux user for personal and professional reasons, always exploring what is new in the world of Linux and sharing with my readers.
The Java compiler javac. The Java virtual machine JVM which is java. The native method C generator javah. Native header files together with complete library files which are all used to define JNI.
These are: Javah ensures this file is automatically added in the app header files. Calling native code from Java applications JNI allows the developer to exercise their creativity and go around problems that cannot be addressed in Java but can be solved in a native language.
In such an instance JNI becomes an invaluable tool to the programmer in a couple of situations such as: When you have legacy code libraries or code that you want to use inside a java program.
When you need to insert time-sensitive code in a faster, low-level programming language.
When you need to work with features that are platform dependent and are not supported in the Java class library. Using the following code, we will learn a few things: Compiling the java code The next step is compiling the java code to bytecode.
Our design will pass keyword-value pairs as the argument for the native execute method. The return values will also be a series of keyword-value pairs. Our native method then is a method that takes a string and returns a string. Therefore, instead of trying to capture the string manipulation logic in NativeCommand, we will have a base class called NativeMessage. The first issue is efficiency. By creating a signature that only deals with strings you are forced to spend processing time converting to and from textual representations.
Fortunately for us efficiency is not an issue for most GUI designs since most of the time they are being driven at human speeds and the computation time for parsing becomes trivial. The second issue is type safety. By forcing everything into a string we lose valuable type information. This concern can be minimized by hiding most of the string manipulation logic in low-level base classes that are not used directly by anyone.
In the derived classes our data will be strongly typed and the fact that it gets converted to strings before it is used will be transparent. The last issue is runtime errors vs.
I have to admit this one bothers me. Derived classes will have to put arguments into commands via keywords and get return values from commands via keywords. If the keyword is not present, we can throw an exception. We have traded compile time errors for runtime errors by generalizing the signature. This is true of many Java package interfaces. If you are going to program in Java you have to get used to dealing with runtime error checks. In this manner, Java is able to support applications for many types of data processing systems, which may contain a variety of central processing units and operating systems architectures.
To enable a Java application to execute on different types of data processing systems, a compiler typically generates an architecture-neutral file format—the compiled code is executable on many processors, given the presence of the Java run-time system. The Java compiler generates Bytecode instructions that are nonspecific to a particular computer architecture.
These Bytecode instructions are designed to be easy to interpret on any computer and easily translated on the fly into native machine code. Bytecode may be translated into native code by a just-in-time compiler or JIT.
A JVM loads class files and executes the Bytecodes within them. The class files are loaded by a class loader in the JVM.
The class loader loads class files from an application and the class files from the Java application programming interfaces APIs which are needed by the application.
The execution engine that executes the Bytecodes may vary across platforms and implementations. One type of software-based execution engine is a just-in-time JIT compiler. With this type of execution, the Bytecodes of a method are compiled to native machine code upon successful fulfillment of criteria for JIT compiling a method. The native machine code for the method is then cached and reused upon the next invocation of the method. The execution engine may also be implemented in hardware and embedded on a chip so that the Java Bytecodes are executed natively.
When an application is executed on a JVM that is implemented in software on a platform-specific operating system, a Java application may interact with the host operating system by invoking native methods. A Java method is written in the Java language, compiled to Bytecodes, and stored in class files.
A native method is written in some other language and compiled to the native machine code of a particular processor. Native methods are stored in a dynamically linked library whose exact form is platform specific.
JVM includes class loader subsystem , which is a mechanism for loading types, such as classes and interfaces, given fully qualified names. JVM also contains runtime data areas , execution engine , native method interface , and memory management Execution engine is a mechanism for executing instructions contained in the methods of classes loaded by class loader subsystem Execution engine may be, for example, Java interpreter or just-in-time compiler Native method interface allows access to resources in the underlying operating system.
Runtime data areas contain native method stacks , Java stacks , PC registers , method area , and heap These different data areas represent the organization of memory needed by JVM to execute a program. Java stacks are used to store the state of Java method invocations. When a new thread is launched, the JVM creates a new Java stack for the thread.
The JVM performs only two operations directly on Java stacks: it pushes and pops frames. A thread's Java stack stores the state of Java method invocations for the thread. The state of a Java method invocation includes its local variables, the parameters with which it was invoked, its return value, if any, and intermediate calculations. Java stacks are composed of stack frames. A stack frame contains the state of a single Java method invocation.
When a thread invokes a method, the JVM pushes a new frame onto the Java stack of the thread. When the method completes, the JVM pops the frame for that method and discards it.
The JVM does not have any registers for holding intermediate values; any Java instruction that requires or produces an intermediate value uses the stack for holding the intermediate values. In this manner, the Java instruction set is well-defined for a variety of platform architectures. Program counter PC registers are used to indicate the next instruction to be executed.
Each instantiated thread gets its own PC register and Java stack. If the thread is executing a JVM method, the value of the PC register indicates the next instruction to execute. Native method stacks stores the state of invocations of native methods. The state of native method invocations is stored in an implementation-dependent way in native method stacks, registers, or other implementation-dependent memory areas.
In some JVM implementations, native method stacks and Java stacks are combined. Method area contains class data while heap contains all instantiated objects. The constant pool is located in method area in these examples. The JVM specification strictly defines data types and operations. When JVM loads a class file, it parses information about a type from the binary data contained in the class file.
JVM places this type of information into the method area. Each time a class instance or array is created, the memory for the new object is allocated from heap JVM includes an instruction that allocates memory space within the memory for heap but includes no instruction for freeing that space within the memory.
Memory management in the depicted example manages memory space within the memory allocated to heap Memory management may include a garbage collector, which automatically reclaims memory used by objects that are no longer referenced.
Additionally, a garbage collector also may move objects to reduce heap fragmentation. The present invention provides a method, an apparatus, and computer instructions during JIT compilation for transforming JNI function calls into simpler compiler operations which ultimately results in the generation of constants and more efficient intermediate representation.
In a preferred embodiment, the present invention utilizes a JIT compiler intermediate representation that is converted from an inlined native function intermediate representation.
The present invention provides a JNI call transformer that performs analysis on each generated JIT compiler intermediate representation instruction searching for JNI function calls. In this way, faster access to JVM services and data is provided. The JNI call transformer gains knowledge of how each JNI function uses the JNIEnv argument and the use of each user provided arguments to each call, and maintains a list of known shapes.
Alternatively, the JIT call transformer may determine the shapes dynamically at the start of Java program execution or as part of the JIT compiler build process. Alternatively, knowledge of the shapes may be hardcoded into the source code of the JIT compiler. The shape of a JNI call includes 1 the means represented in the intermediate representation to access the actual target JNI function 2 the treatment again in the intermediate representation each actual argument receives.
It is also possible to create the list of shapes when the JIT itself is constructed. By performing shape determination as part of the building the JIT compiler, a certain set of shapes is determined when the compiler is restarted.
The only requirement for performing shape determination as part of building the JIT compiler is that the intermediate representation used is correct for both the current version of the JIT compiler and the virtual machine. As a result of this process, a list of JNI function call intermediate representation shapes is generated. Specifically, the related patent application provides a conversion engine to convert native function intermediate representation to JIT compiler intermediate representation, as well as an inliner which replaces the intermediate representation of an inlineable native function call with the actual implementation of the function in the JIT compiler intermediate representation.
The inliner also performs inlining work including mapping parameters to arguments, merging native compiler and JIT compiler intermediate representations, control flow graphs, and materializing the JNIEnv pointer so that it can be used by an inlined statement to make calls to the JNI API.
During the inlining of native code, the inliner analyzes inlined code for intermediate representation statements generated representing JNI calls. The inliner records all the uses of the JNIEnv variable in the inlined native function, which may be passed to recursively inlined functions.
When the inliner encounters a use of the JNIEnv variable, if the JNIEnv variable is not used in the same position as it appears in any of the list of shapes, the inlining process continues. However, if the JNIEnv variable is used in the same position as it appears in one of the list of shapes, the entire shape is matched to the intermediate representation for the JNI function callsite. A shape of a JNI method call matches a member of the list of shapes if it has the same number of arguments and each argument in the actual call is compatible with the type of argument in the member of the list of shapes.
If a match is found, meaning that the callsite corresponds to a JNI function call, the callsite is not eligible for inlining, but may be eligible for transformation.